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通用工程英语听说教程(下)原文及翻译

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 U Unit

 11

 Site I nspe ction (2)

 U1 1

  /

 Section A

  S ome T ips

 fo r Site Ins pectio n(P67-6 9) The previous unit refer red to the gene ral tips for hosti ng sit e inspect ions(工地检查), while this unit aims to introduce the

 ge neral

 idea s of how to prepare inspectors for carrying out site inspections more efficiently, especially helpful for those young inspectors who are not so experienced、 上一单元 提到了 主持 接待 工地检查得一些 通用 技巧,而本单元旨在介绍 检查员应该如何准备,以便更有效地执行工地检查工作得一些 总体(工作) 思路,这对于那些经验不足得年轻检查员来说尤其有帮助。

 ?Be goa l-orient ed

 目标明确 Most engineering projects involve many con str uction

 pr oced ures and different s ites s, so, in order to i mp lement su pervision

 and mai ntai n the project quality, there are many objects to be inspected on the site, such as the temp or ary faci lities , fo rmw ork ks, , rein force ment wor ks, co nc rete

 works, , steel st ruc tur e works, pi pi ng

 and e lectrica l

 work s,

 r oo fi ng and water pro ofing, f ini shing

 works, sa fety

 manag emen, t, and so on、 S ort out the objects and steps of inspection so that the contractor can provide direct assistance and enough information、

 程工施多很及涉目项程工数多大? 施工程序与不同得 施工 工地,因此,为了 实施 工程 监督, 保证工程质量,工地上有很多项目需要检查,例如 临时设施 ﹑ ( 浇筑 )

 模板 ﹑ 加固工程 ﹑ 混凝土工程 ﹑ 钢结构工程 ﹑ 管道与电气工程 ﹑ 屋顶与防水 处理 工程 ﹑ 终饰 工程 ﹑ 安全管理工作等等。

 检查员要 分类 整理好被检查得对象,明确检查得各个步骤,以便承包商能够提供直接得帮助与足够得信息。

 S Sche dule good

 timing g

 (计划)安排好检查得时机 Time the site inspection flexibly, ta kin g th e differ ences—inspecting goals, objects, and weather—into consi der ation 、 、 灵活安排工地检查时机,把 把 不同得检查目标 ﹑检查对象以及天气得 差异情况 列入考虑范围。

 If the inspection needs the preparation and the assistance of the contractor, call the rece pti on

 desk ahead of schedule, giving the latter enough time to get ready、 If the inspection aims to check th e ins tant construc tion s ta te, a su ud dden i ns pection is worth co nsiderin g, without informing the contractor before that、

  如果检查需要承包商得准备与协助,请提前通知 接待处 ( 前台),给她们足够得时间准备。如果检查得目得就是要检查 即时施工状态,那么不提前通知承包商, 值得考虑 进行一次 突 击检查( 或“进行一次 突击检查 就是 值得考虑” 得” )。

 It’s better to carry out the inspection in

 fair

 weather because the extreme weather may bring about do wntime( ( 停工期 期) of the construction, especially for those outdoor working、 最好在 好天气时进行检查,因为极端天气可能会导致施工得停工,尤其就是那些户外施工作业。

 B e armed

 with t estin g devi ces 配备测试装置 It may so und

 l ike a no-br ainer, but being equipped with necessary testing devices will sa ve

 y ou from the troubl es asking for help when needed、 What to take depends on the different inspecting objects、 But a t ape

 mea sure( (卷尺)

 )

 is a must no matter what and where to inspect、 It is easy to take but can work wonder s in checking ste el

 bar s, carpe nter wor king

 and other simple works、 When a more accurate testing is going on, the tot al

 station, theodo lite , or

 gradient er should be adopted、 Undoubtedly, the contractor will be willing to provide those paratively more sophisticated devices on the site when asked to、 这 听起来似乎很 简单,但就是装备这些必要得测试设备,可以在您需要寻求帮助时 避免不必要得麻烦.要配备哪些装置取决于不同得检查对象.但就是 无论在哪里检查以及 检查什么,卷尺都就是必须得。虽然它很容易携带,但它可以在检查 钢筋, 木匠工作与其她简单工作中会 产生奇效。

 。当要进行更精确得测试时,应采用 全站仪 、 经纬仪或水平仪。毫无疑问,当被要求时,承包商愿意在现场提供那些相对比较精密得设备。

 Obs er ve

 safe ty re gulation s

 o n wor ksi te 遵守工地安全规章制度 T he saf ety regulations on the engineering worksite should be s trict ly

 ob se rv ed by all the engineers and workers, let alone

 the inspectors、 所有工程师与工人都应 严格遵守工程施工现场得 安全规程 ( 规章制度)要求, 更不用说检察员们了. Before getting close to the worksite, learn about the spec ific s afe ty regulatio ns of t the targe t

 i nspec ting zone 、 在接近工地之前,要了解 目标检查 区域得 具体安全规则。

 Ask t he

 H 、S 、E 、 depart ment to provide the

 sa fet y h el mets ,

 reflecti ve gear,

 prote ec ti ve

 s hoes and so on、 And the special insu lati ng prot ective ge ar incl udin g g lov ves , b oot s

 an d overshoes are needed when inspecting the electrical works、 要求 健康安全环保部门(HS、E 部门)提供 安全头盔、反光装置、防护鞋等等。另外,在检查电气工程时,要求提供特殊得 绝缘保护装置,包括手套、靴子与绝缘套鞋等。

 Keep a distance from the working tr uck cranes ,

 wh eel crane s, to wer cran es, ga ntry cr ra anes, etc、, to avoid unexpected injur y from falling objects、 要注意与 正在工作中得 卡车 起重机、轮式起重机、塔式起重机、龙门起重机等等保持一定距离,以避免

 因坠落物体而造成 意外伤害。

 Ask the pr ofess ional

 t ec hnicians to operate the me cha nical

 or

 electri cal

 equipment、 要求 专业得 技术人员来操作 机械或电气设备。

 B e caut ious about the ground on the site, prev enting f rom falling down when it is too slippery and f rom being hurt by the

 wood, nails,

 steel bars and so on、所伤 要当心工地得地面, 防止因地面太滑而摔倒,也 要避免被 木头、钉子、钢筋 筋等所伤。

 As k d ir ect question s and be objec tive e

 直接提问, 保持客观 Once the le ad p erson from the contractor is identified, keep the overall contact with him during the inspection、 It is not necessary to be at ro und the

 bush

 but to cu t

 to the

 chase 、 一旦承包商确定了 项目负责人,在检查期间,应与她保持全面联系.没必要说话时 拐弯抹角 兜圈子,而就是要 开门见山 直入正题. Be stra ight for ward

 to

 the lead pe rson when asking for design

 d raw ing s, con stru uction rec ords, te sting re po rts, and other documents not involving confidential information、 需要瞧 设计图纸 、 施工记录 、 测试报告与其它未涉及机密信息得文件时,应 直接 坦 率 地告诉 项目负责人。

 Ask the engineers or workers directly about the c on st ruc tion progr es s, p rocedure s, t ec hnical requiremen ts, materi al s tan dar d, etc、, to get information in a more efficient way、 直接询问工程师或工人们关于 施工 进度, 施工程序,技术要求与材料标准等等问题,从而更高效地获得信息。

 Poi nt o ut the problems, if existing, and set the dead line and

 demands o f rectification、 、 It may be a little c allous

 but it will turn out to be the

 most help ful way for both sides、 如果项目存在问题得话, 指出存在得问题,并 确定 整改 得期限与要求。这瞧上去显得有点 不近人情,但它将会就是对双方 最有帮助得方式。

 K eep r ecor ds

 保存记录 In order to record the ins pec tion

 find in gs on the site, the inspector can not e do own the details

 in various forms、 It is a good idea to prepare a sh ee t covering all th

 ose objects to be inspected before going to the site、 In addition, on this ins pection s sheet, many issues can also be included, such as the ev alua tion cr ite ria, , eva luation grades , pro blem s

 e xis ti ng, facto rs contri but ing t o

 the

 p roblems ,

 re ctif ic ati ion instru ctio ns, and recti ficatio n dead lines, , etc、 A caref ull y-de si gned

 a nd p pr rehensive ins pecti on s hee t can be helpful for the inspector to carry out the work on the site and report the inspection when finished、 为了记录在现场得 检查发现,检查员可以用多种方式 记录细节。在去现场之前,准备一个涵盖所有被检查对象得 表格就是一个好主意。另外,在这个 检查表中,也包含了许多问题,例如 评估标准 ﹑ 评估等级 ﹑ 存在得问题 ﹑ 造成 问题得因素 ﹑ 整改指示 ﹑ 与整改 期限等等。

 一个精心设计 ﹑ 全面 综合得 检查表,对于检查员在现场展开工作与检查结束后报告检查情况,就是有帮助得。

 Taking photos is another way to keep the inspection records、 But make

 sur e it is allowed because every pany has its own

 confid entia l p ol icie s、 So it is polite to ask the permission before taking photos and not to use the photos for unrelated pu rposes、

 拍照就是保存检查记录得另一种方法。但就是要确保这个就是经过允许得,因为每个公司都有自己得保密政策.所以,拍照之前征得许可,以及不为某些不相关得目得去使用这些照片,就是很有礼貌得做法。

 A Al ways fol lo w up 随时跟进 Conductin g peri odic site ins pe ction s is an excellent way to ensure both sides’ mitment、 Quality should always be the ma in conc ern in site inspection、 How can the inspector ensure the contractor has done the rectification properly? Certainly

 fol low w—up ins pections are quite necessary、 定期进行现场检查就是确保双方 承诺得一个极佳办法。质量问题应该始终就是现场检查得 关注焦点.检查员如何确保承包商 妥善地完成了整改工作?显然,进行后续 跟踪 检查就是非常必要得。

 Number of

 in spections also depends on the co ntract or’s r ep uta tio n, which is also one of the objects to be inspected、 T he

 b et ter

 the r eput ation , the

 less i nspe cti ons are needed 、 The contractor’s reputation can be found in

 the ir plete d pr oj ect ts a nd the

 ones in

 progres s、 And the c ap ital f unds ,

 ma nage ment, pe rsonnel, ,

 tempo rar y

 f aci li ties, con struct io n pr oc edures an d c ra fts,

 safety

 regul atio ns and so on can also shed

 a li ght t

 o on the contractor’s rep uta tion

 and d

 streng th 、 检查得次数也取决于 承包商得声誉,这也就是要检查得目标之一。

 信誉越好,需要检查 得次数就越少。人们可以从承包商 已竣工 项目与在 建 项目中瞧出她们得声誉。而且 资本 资金、管理、 施工 人员、临时设施、施工程序与工艺、安全 规章制度等等也能够 体现( 或显示 )

 出承包商得 声誉与实力。

 No doubt, the above tips a re far from

 preh ensi ve

 for each specific inspection,

 which may var y great ly under different circumstances、 But they can be general g guide line s for the young inspectors、 毫无疑问,以上建议对于每种具体得检查工作来说 远远不够 全面,它可能会随不同得情况 变化很大。但对于年轻得检查员们来说,上述建议可以作为 通用 指南使用。

 U11

 Sect ion C

 Organiz at ion

 o f Safe ty

 Work(P74)

 Generally, a t the ve ry beg inning

 of a p roject, a s uitably

 qualif ied

 an d expe erienc ed p ers on will be appointed as safety of fi cer,

 who will be given sufficient time,

 autho ri ty

  and respo nsibility

 to ensure the safety pro gr am、 H is duties mainly include several aspects: to inspect the worksite safety regularly, to ensure safe ty meth ods are being

 adopted, and all the safety and health requirements are being

  o ob serv ed , to make detailed investigations if any safety accident occurs, and to take co unter measures to prevent the recurrence of similar accidents、 The safety office is also authorized by the project manager the right to issue safety

 instr ucti ions

  for warning, giving

 pe nalt ies ,

 up to firing any person who breaks the safety regulations、

 In add itio n, the safety officer also has the duty to take charge of the safety and health

 tr ain ing pro gr am、 通常, 在一个项目刚开始得时候,一个 具备资格与 经验得人会被任命为 安全员,她将被给予充分得时间、权利 与责任去确保 项目安全 计划。

 她得 职责主要包括以下几个方面: 定期检查工地安全;确保 安全 措施得到采纳;所有安全及健康要求得以 遵守 ;如有任何安全事故发生,都要进行详细得调查,并制定对策以避免类似事故得重演。安全员也会得到项目经理得授权,有权发布安全 操作指令作为警告、给予 惩罚、甚至有权开除任何违反安全条例得人。

 除此之外,安全员也有职责负责 安全与健康 培训计划。

 The sa fety and hea lth progr am is usually divided into two parts:

 one is for training workers and the other for training foreme n

  and supervisors、 The contents include but, are not limited to, the following items:

 work si te

 s afe ty

 polic y,

 em ployee responsib ility ,

 p an y" s

 safety

 re gulatio ns , c onstructi on acci de nts and rep orti ng, ele ec tric al safe ty, pe rson al

 sa fety equi pme nt , sca ffold ing , t renchin g a nd exc ca av at ion,

 crane

 safety, resp ir ator y protect ion , fi re prot ect io n and prev en tio on , tox ic

 s ubstances, f irst aid and

 e me rg enc y

 aid procedure, and so on、 安全与健康 培训 项目通常分成两个部分:一方面就是培训工人,另一方面就是培训 工头与监管员。内容包含但不仅限于以下项目:

 工地 安全政策、员工得职责、公司得安全 制度条例 、施工事故及报告、用电安 全、个人 安全设备、脚手架、开沟与挖掘、 起重机 安全、呼吸保护、消防与 火灾 预防、有毒物质、 急救 与紧急救援程序等等。

 Un it 12

 Neg otiation (1)

 U12

 / Sec tion A

 Som e I ss ue s

 in

 Negoti ation(P75) In an international construction project after bidding, a certain contractor is successful、 And the owner is often unable to accept all contents in the tender of the contractor、 This requires negotiations by which the two sides ultimately reach an agreement、 In co ntra cting , ne go tiation pla ys a vital ro le、 一个国际建设项目,经过招标,某一承包商竞标成功.但业主通常不会接受承包商标书中得所有内容。这就需要双方进行谈判,通过谈判最终达成协议.在 缔约过程中, 谈判起着至关重要得作用。

 There are some key issu es in the negotiation、 They are:

  在谈判中,有一些关键问题需要注意,它们分别就是: T he i ss ue of working

 r ange 工作范围问题 It refers to the sco pe of

 w or k undertaken by the contractor, including construction, materials, equipment supply, the provision of construction personnel, the amount of work to determine, quality requirements and other responsibilities and obligations、 The sco pe o f work is t he p rere quisit e for th e establ ishment

 of f

 the contr ac t

 an d also the b as is o f neg otiations、 、

 Therefore, it can be said that the scope of work is a very important issue in contract negotiations、 In the provision s of the scope of work the following three cases should be paid attention to:

 它指得就是承包商承担得 工作范围,这包括建筑施工、材料、设备供应、关于施工人员得条款、要确定得工作量、质量要求与其她得责任与义务。

 工作范围就是合同 成立(订立合同 )

 得先决条件 , 也就是谈判得基础 。因此,可以说,工作范围就是合同谈判中一个非常重要得问题,在工作范围得 规定中,应注意以下三种情况: (A) The scope of work and content is not clear or the contractor does not correctly understand, which results from leakage and will directly affect the cost of the project、 工作范围与内容表述不清楚,或者承包商没有正确理解,造成了内容得泄露,都将会直接影响工程得造价。

 (B)The text in the provisions of the s cope of

 t he wor k is not clear、 关于工作范围得条款文本表述不清楚。

 (C)

 Inaccuracy cases in Chinese translation of te nders

 in fo reign la nguages、 The quotatio n based on such incorrect translation will affect the contract price、 外文标书翻译成中文时,存在得不准确情况。基于这样错误翻译得报价将会影响合同价格。

 All of these cases in the negotiations must be very clear、 T he ke y equipm ment t ra nslation must be professional、 It needs t ec hnical personnel and in terp reters to review and st ri ve to avoid big mistakes、

 所有这些出现得情况在谈判中都必须非常清楚。关键设备得翻译必须就是专业得。需要 技术人员与口译 员去认真审查, 尽力避免大得错误。

 The

 issue of

 cont rac t

 price

 合同价格得问题 Contract price is the most important content of the contract, which is the key to the discussion, including u nit pr ice , to tal p ric e, salary,

 ove rtime

 and other costs, as well as payment methods and payment conditions、 Contract prices are affected by the scope

 o f

 w ork , contract duration and other obligations、 合同价格就是合同当中最重要得内容,它就是谈判得关键。包括 单价 、 总价 、 薪水 、 加班费与其她费用,以及付款方式与付款条件.合同价格受 工作范围、 合同 工期与其她义务得影响. (A) The owner asked the contractor to use a fix ed price to bid, or allowed some p pr ice fle xibi li ty

 clause s、 For example, in the event of a deva luat ion

 of t he curren cy, could the contract price be increased? If not allowed, then the contractor should make judgments on the price by considering full factors such as the country’s political situation, economic conditions and so on、 业主要求承包商使用 固定价格来投标,或允许某些 弹性价格条款。例如,在 货币贬值得情况下,合同价格就是否可以增加?如果不允许,则承包商应充分考虑如该国得政治情况、经济条件等诸多因素,对价格产生得影响作出判断。

 (B)

 In the con tra ct p eri od , the owner can or cannot guarantee a certain or several modities prices stabl e、 For example, the owner asked the contractor to use a f ixed pr ic e to bid, but can guarantee the prices of a small number of other modities such as cement stable、 If these modity prices were raised, the contract price could be increased、 在 合同 有效期内,业主不一定能保证某种或几种商品价格得 稳定。例如,业主要求承包商使用固定价格进行投标,但可以保证其她少数商品,如水泥得价格稳定。如果这些商品价格上涨,合同价格可能会提高. The is su e

 of contr act

 pr oje ct ti me 合同项目时间得问题 The contrac t du ra ti on indicates that the contractor"s work must be pleted within a specified period of time、 It is the default bas is for defa ulting fine, but also an important factor affe cting the cont ract

 p rice、 The contract duration requirements should be stated as follows:

 合同 工期表明,承包商得工作必须在规定得时间内完成。这就是 违约 罚款得 默认基础,也就是影响合同价格得一个重要因素。合同期限得要求如下:

 (A) If th e s tart conditio ns cannot be guaranteed, the duration should be extended、 To ensure the pletion of schedule, first of all, it is necessary to protect the start on time、 The factors which may affect the start should be written into the terms of the contract, such as to provide cons tr uction

 drawi ng s on time, to deliv er constructi on si tes timely 、

  如果不能保证(项目)

 开始 条件,则应延长工期。为确保按计划完工,首先有必要保护按时开工。应把可能影响施工开始得因素都写进合同条款中,例如:应按时提供 施工图纸, 及时交付施工地点。

 If the owner cannot check timely before acce pt ance, the dura tio on should be extended、

 Some owners, subjec tive ly in order to delay payment or

 obj ectivel y due to increasing t he

 am ount of eng ineerin g or m odify ing the

 des ign content and other factors, do not check the project before accept ance, which has been pleted by the contractor、(一些业主,由于有想推迟付款得主观原因,或由于增加了工程量或修改了设计内容或其它因素等客观原因,验收前不检验承包商已完工得项目)、It will force the contractor to interrupt the construction、 Therefore, the work which needs the owner to c onfirm the app roval l should be determined a dou ble limited

 time limit 、 If the c onfir ma tio on time of the owner exceeds the

 t ime

 li mit, the contractor has the right to require the owner to extend the contract duration、 如果业主 在验收前不能及时检查,应当延长 工期。一些业主,主观上为了推迟付款,或者,客观上由于增加了工程量或修改了设计内容或其它因素,验收前不检验承包商已完工得项目。这将迫使承包商中断施工建设。因此,所有需要业主确认同意得工作应该规定 双 限定期限(即甲方验收得确认时间与乙方施工工期)。如果业主得 确认时间 超过 了规定期限( 时间限制),承包商有权要求业主延长合同期限. Here it is necessary to mention the difference between the con tract d uration and the c on trac t

 p eriod 、 Th e contract

 du ratio n is the time stipulated by the contractor to plete its work、 And the cont ract perio d is the valid period of a contract、 In the contract of construction, the contract period is generally longer than the contract duration、 That is, the contra ct dura tion may not have begun and the cont tract per iod is not t erminated at the end of the contract duration, such as maintenance period existing、 在这里,有必要提及 合同工期与 合同有效期得区别.合同工期就是指承包商完成工作所规定得时间;合同有效期就是合同得有效期限。在施工合同中,合同有效期一般比工期要长。也就就是说,工期可能还没开始,(合同已经生效);而工期已结束,但 合同有效期还没结束,比如还有保修期存在。

 The issue o f ins pection and acc eptan ce 验收事项

 The owners form all y accept the contents of the work pleted by the contractor in acco rdance with the contract and the new requirements、 This work will directly affect the con tract duration and construction costs、 Pay attention to

 the acce ptan ce r an ge, accep tance

 time, ,

 a acceptanc e

 qual it y s tandards and other issues、 Insp ection and acceptan ce ca n be d ivid ed into three

 form s、 The first is inspection and acceptance of the construction of a single work (or a process), such as the concealed project acceptance、 The second is the inspection and acceptance of pletion of the entire project, including issuing the

 acc ept ance certi fi cate of pl et io n、 The third is inspection and acceptance for the construction of materials and equipment、 业主 根据合同与新要求, 正式验收承包商完成得工作内容,这项工作将直接影响合同工期与施工成本。这个工作会直接影响工期与工程相关费用.要注意 验收范围 ﹑ 验收时间,验收质量标准与其她问题。

 验收可以被分成三种形式。第一种就就是单一工作(或者某一过程)施工得验收,例如隐蔽工程得验收。第二种就是对整个项目得竣工验收,包括签发 竣工验收证书。第三种就是对建材与设备得验收。

 U12 / SECT ION C

 Ho w

 to

 Negotiate for Inte rnatio nal Projec t Con tract (P82 —83) In the negotiation process of in terna ti onal pro ject c ontrac t, the negotiator of the bidder should use different negotiation skills as the negotiation situation and the negotiation intensity contrast、

 在国际工程项目合同得谈判过程中,竞标方得谈判官,在不同得谈判情景与谈判强度对照之下,应该采取不同得谈判技巧

 To find o ut

 t he int ention of

 the

 ow ners 、 Bidders’ negotiation team should have a person responsible for recording、 The words of each other all should be recorded、 It helps careful analysis of each other"s intentions to

 determine

 bidder"s

 next s tep

 in the negotiations、 搞清楚 业主得意图。投标方得谈判小组应由一专人负责记录。双方得所有话都应记录下来.这有助于仔细分析对方得意图,利于投标方 确定谈判中 下一步要采取得策略。

 (A) To test t

 e ea ch oth er"s

  b ott om

 lin e、 Bidders in the negotiations should pay attention to t he

 b o t t om

 li n e, understand what other side"s bottom line is and determine which conditions the other side really wants to adhere to and which condition is a fei nt 、

  测试 对方 得底线。在谈判中,投标方应注意底线问题,了解对方得底线就是什么,并确定对方真正想要坚守得条件就是什么,哪些条件就是对方得 伪装 。

 (C) Bidders should f ully an alyz e the situation, make the right judgments, take advanta

 ge of the other side’s weaknesses and force the other side to

 ma ke promises、

  As for one’s own weaknesses, the bidder should try to avoid、 投标方应当 全面 分析谈判局势,作出正确判断,利用对方得弱点,迫使对方作出 妥协。至于自身得弱点,投标方应当尽力避免. (D)If the negotiations stalled, the bidders may wish to call

  “pause” and tell each other:they want to find the boss’ or expert’s consultation、 This allows both parties to have time to re con side r the ir

 positio n and to give them the opportunity to study cou nt ermeasu res or to return to the negotiating table with a little concession、 如果谈判 陷入僵局,投标方可能希望叫“ 暂停” ,并告知对方:她们想寻求老板或专家得咨询。这样双方就有时间 重新考虑自己得立场,有机会 研究对策,或在作出稍许让步得情况下,重新回到谈判桌上. (E) Th e pri ce shoul d be prepared

 for concessi ons、

 The price is the fo cus

 which the owners are concerned about、 Because the price of a project is very easy to be seen and concerned, in the negotiations, if

 nece ssary y, , the bidders should make some c on ce ssions on the price、 But the te rms

 of the contract is not easy to see clearly, which also hides a huge interest and can find some back、 价格应 当 准备 好做出 让步.价格就是业主们关注得 焦点。因为一个项目得价格总就是显而易见又让人关注。在谈判中, 如有必要,投标方需要在价格上 做些让步。但合同中得 条款并不容易瞧明白,其中也隐藏了巨大利益,可以找回一些利益(或损失)。

 (F) promise strategy、 In order to sp eed up

 the settlement of the problems encountered in the negotiations, a promise is a good way、 If the owner put fo rward a promise , the bidder could take

 t he

 i nit iat ive , and then

 barga in 、

 So as soon as possible the two parties would re ac h an agre ement、 妥协策略。为了 加快解决谈判中遇到得问题,妥协就是一种好办法。如果业主 提出了妥协,投标方就可以 采取主动,然后进行 议价,这样合作双方才有可能尽快 达成一致。

 Unit

 13

 Negotia tion (2) U1 3

 / Section A

 Some Ti ps

 for

 Nego ti ati on(P 84-85 )

 The following are some issues that should be negotiated in international engineering contracts、 以下就是在国际工程合同谈判中需要注意得问题 :

 (1 )The i ss ue r egard ing g uaran tee

 关于担保问题

  Provisions relating to guarantee in international engineering include the following:

 国际工程中关于担保得条款包括以下:

 W arra nt ies

 on ti me lim it for the

 proje ct

 项目期限担保

 Warrant ie s on

 tim e l imit

 for t he pr ojec t

 mean t he O WNER

 o r the CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for any

 c ost incurred for the su spensi on of pr roje ct due to the fault on their own part、 项目期限担保意味着, 业主或者承包商应该,对任何因她们己方过失造成得 项目暂停,从而遭受得 任何 损失要担负负责。

 Paym en t gu arantee 支付担保

 T Th e payment gua rantee is a

 written i nstru men t in which the ban k or the

 pro fessional

 guaran tee corpor ation provides to the CONTRACT OR for th e OWN ER’s hon noring( ( 兑现)

 )the pay ment

 engi neering

 sum (pr ogress c la im )

 at the con fir mat ion of

 the wor k qua nti ty、

  支付担保就是由 银行或者专业担保公司在确认工作量时,向 承包商提供得,由 业主 兑现工程款项(工程进度款)得 一种书面文据。

 P erfor manc e

 gua rantee

  履约担保

 The

 perform ance guar an tee is a w ri tt en ins trument in which the bank or t he pro ofessiona l gua ra ntee co rporation provides to the OW NER for th e CONTRACTOR"s performance( ( 履约)

 )

 of c ont ract ,

 pledging(承诺)

 th e C ONTRACTOR to imple me nt( 履行)

 )

 th e

 obl igations of i ts

 own in the

 contract 、 履约担保就是由 银行或专业担保公司,向 业主提供得, 由承包商履约合同,承诺 由承包商履行自己在合同中义务得 一种书面文据。

 I Insura nc es

 保险

  For example, p rio r to the

 mencemen t of the construction work, the OWNER shall pl ete i nsu rance for t he c ons tr uct ion

 engineerin g, the l if e and p ropert y o of t he peo ple engaged in the construction work in the site and th e third per son and pay th e in surance pre mium for them、

 例如, 在施工 建设 开始 之 前,业主应当为 施工工程、施工现场得 工程人员 得生 命财产与第三人 上 保险,并为其支付 保险费。

 Various types of guarantee in the bidding documents are generally acpani ed

 by

 a fi xed d form 、 投标文件里,各种类型得担保(文据),通常都 附有 固定表格。

 (2)The e

 i issue

 o f

 respon sib ility of

 co ntr ac t brea ch

  合同违约得责任问题

  If any of the parties to the contract is unable to perform or fails to perform the contract due to its fault, it shall pens ate the

 oth er pa rt y for

 the los s

 arising from its breach of the contract in a ccord an ce wi th the contract and pay a certain

 amount t

 o of l iqui date d damages、 In the negotiation, the parties must clearly

 s specify ((详细说明;具体指明)

 )

 some spe cific (明确得;特定得; 具体得)

 respon sib ili tie s、

 合同当事人,因其过错,不能履约或者无法履行合同得,应当 按照合同约定, 赔偿对方因违约所引起得 损失,并支付 一定金额得 违约赔偿金。谈判中,各方必须 明确规定一些 具体 责任。

 Li abili ty(责任;债务;负债)

 for b reach of c ontract t

 (违约)should be considered from the

 fol lowi ng

 thr e e as pects:

 违约责任应从当以下三个方面考虑: To cle ar the n on performance of the

 contract

 明确合同不履约情况

 For example, we (as the CONT RACTOR), fails to plete project within the construction period or we (as the OWNER)

 fails to pay the en ginee ri ng sum, when det ter mining ou r li ab ility y( (责任) for

 bre ac h o f contract , we should specify( 规定;详细说明)

 c er ta in

 a ct s of the other party which are a prer eq ui si te for the performance of our party at the same time、 If the other party fails to i mple ment

 these obligations set in the contract, we shall not const itute the bre ach of c ont rac ct , like

 “the construction work cannot be carried out because of the OWNER not paying the engineer ing sum as set in this contract、" 例如,我方(作为 承包商)在施工期内未能完成工程,或者我方(作为 业主)未能支付 工程款项,在 确定违约责任时,我们应该 详细说明 (或规定),对方得 某些行为就是我方同时履行合同得 先决条件.如果另一方不履行合同中规定得义务,我方则 不构成违约,例如“因业主未能支付本合同中所规定得 工程款 项,从而施工工作无法进行,(不属于违约得情况)”。

 To clear the key right

 明确主要权利 As

 for our key right, it is necessary to st ipulate(规定)

 )

 the liability for breach of contract of the other party in order to guarantee its performance of the obligations、 For example, we (as the CONTRACTOR)

 should sp eci fy( (详细说明;具体指明)

 )

 the o bligations a nd liab il iti es( 责任; 债务;负债)

 )

 for breach of

 co ntract as to th he OWNER’s s ho noring g

 the

 p ayment

 e nginee ring

 sum 、 对于我方得主要权利,有必要 规定对方得违约责任,以保证履行义务. 例如,我方(作为承包商)应该 规定(或 或详细说明)有关 业主兑现工程款项得 义务与违约责任. To c lear the

 dispute

 resolut ion n

 明确争议解决得办法

 If the di spu te

 about the liability for breach of contract and t he lo ss caused by the breach of contract cannot be sett led through

 consulta tion( 协商)

 ), it will be better to be settled by c onsult ing g

 e en ginee rs tha n through l itigat ion(诉讼,起诉)

 which usually does harm to the cooperation between parties、 如果发生了违约责任造成了 争议,与违约造成得 损失( (纠纷),不能 通过协商解决,最好 咨询工程师来解决,而不就是通过会对双方合作造成损害得 诉讼方式来解决。

 (3 )The is sue o f the so urc e of cons truct ors

 施工人员得来源问题

 It is an important issue to be discussed in international engineering contract negotiations、 It directly affects the cost and constr uc tion efficiency 、

 这就是一个在国际工程合同谈判中讨论得重要议题.它直接影响到 工程造价与施工效率。

 Lots of things should be taken

 into a ccoun t: the to tal

 number

 of c on st ruction

 perso on nnel

 required for the project, the

 num ber of foreign workers

 allowed to recruit, t he requi reme nts of

 the g ov ern ment for the use of local workers, the

 po ssib ility

 of hiri ng enoug h

 sk ill ed

 wo rk ers from the local, the pr ovision ns of the loca l gove rn ment

 on the wages and welfare of local workers, r est trictions on

 fore ign workers applying for entry vi sa s,

 residence per mits a nd wor k per mits, and whether these restrictions possibly resulting in foreign workers failing to enter the construction site on schedule and so on、 有许多问题需要 考虑:项目要求得 施工人员总人数; 允许招募得 外籍工人数目、 政府对 本地用工 得要求、从地方 雇佣足够技术工人得可能性、 当地政府 规定得本地工人工资与福利标准(或法规条款)、 对 外籍工人申请入境签证 、

 居住许可与工作许可得 限制条件,还有就是否这些限制条件,可能会造成外籍工人不能按时进入施工现场等等问题。

 ( (4)

 )

 h The issue

 o f

 b uild in g mate ri als an d mech anica l equ uipment

  建材与机械设施问题 Build ing

 m ate ri als

 a nd mechan ical e quipment are also an important issue in negotiations、 Some points should be confirmed in the discussion: whether the m aterial ls and m echanical eq uipment used in the project can be im port ed du ty-f ree or partly

 duty—fre e through

 c onsultat io n and

 taxes

 and tax rates( ( 应收税与税率) on taxable goods; whether goods exempt from customs duties can be re- exp or ted

 or sold

 l loca lly; whether the local government requires the contractor to use some local material and so on、 建材与机械设备也就是谈判中得一个重要议题. 在讨论中应该 确认一些要点:

 项目使用得材料与机 械设备就是否可以通过协商、应税货物得 应收税与税率,获得 进口免关税或部分免关税 ; 免关税 得 货物就是否可以 再出口或在当地出售; 当地政府就是否要求承包商使用本地材料等。

 U 13 /

  Section C

  Ho w to Ref use

 i n Ne gotia ti ons (P90) In the process of contract negotiation, it is

 inevitable

 to reject the other side’s requirements、 It

 t akes co urage

 a nd

 wi sdom to refus e and this requires negotiators not to agree with the requirements of the other side easily and at the right time to fight for his own

 f avorabl e

 conditions in a way neither

 servile(卑躬得;谄媚得) nor o verb ear ing (专横得;傲慢得;盛气凌人得)

 )、 A clever negotiator will be

 reaso ona ble when he refuses and ac hieve s h is goal s without provoking the other side、 T Th e techniq ues o f r ejection should be weighe d an d

 c hose n by

 eff ec t、 在合同谈判过程中,拒绝对方得要求就是 不可避免得。

 拒绝需要勇气与智慧,这要求谈判者不能轻易同意对方得要求,在适当得时候要以不卑不亢得方式来争取对自己 有利得条件。一个聪明得谈判者会 合 情合理地拒绝对方,并且在不激怒对方得情况下 达成她得目得。

 拒绝得技巧应该根据 谈判 效果来 权衡 与选择。

 Humor

 is always one of the most

 effecti ve

 skills used to reject the other side、 When the other side resol utely ref use d to cut prices or reducing conditions, use words with humor and ease or tell a wonderf ul story to make the other side understand the

 rej ection by reading between the lines so as to avoid the

 emb arra ssmen t

 of the other side, and to transf er the unhappiness of being rejected、 For example, “If you insist on this price, please prepare for our winter clothes and food、 You never want our staff to work for you in hunger and cold、” 幽默一直就是用来拒绝对方得最 有效技巧之一。当另一方 坚决拒绝降价或减少条件时,您可以用轻松幽默得语言,或者讲一个精彩得故事方式,让对方 从 话里句间明白您 拒绝得意思。这样可以避免对方得 尴尬(或化解尴尬),也 转移被拒绝后得不快。举个例子,“如果您方坚持这个价格,请准备好我们得冬装与食物.您永

 远不希望我们得员工在饥寒交迫中为您工作。” Sett ing an impossible

  pre requis ite e (先决条件;前提,必备条件)

 )

 for the other side to reject his unreasonable request euphemis tically is also a usual means to reject, such as:

 “Unless we use

 inf erio r

  r aw

 materials to reduce production costs

 by 50 percent, could we meet your price、” Because it is impossible for the other side to accept the prerequisite, it is

 parati vely( 比较地;相当地)

 easy for him to understand the rej ect ion、 设定一个不可能得 先决 条件, 委婉 地拒绝对方不合理得请求,也就是一种常用得拒绝手段。比如:“除非我方使用 劣质 原 材料来减少 50%得 生产 成本,否则我方不可能满足您方得价格”.因为对方不可能接受这一先决条件,所以她们会 很容易明白遭到 拒绝了。

 When the negotiations were de adlocked, , both sides insisted on not giving in, wise negotiators always avoid the focus of recent problem or give a ppropria te, preferenti al con dit tions

 or

  pensati on

 within capacity、 To achieve the purpose of refusal, negotiators usually attempt to delay

 o r avoid talk ing about the recent problems since long term goals are not specific, and the change of related factors is difficult to predict、 In fact, not making

 mit ment

 to the recent problems is an important skill to achi eve t he

 p urp ose

 of refusal in the negotiations、 当谈判陷入 僵局时,双方都坚持不让步,明智得谈判者总就是避开最近问题得焦点,或者在能力范围之内给予对方 适当得、优惠条件或 补偿.为了达到拒绝得目得,谈判者通常会尝 试拖延或者就是避免谈论最近得问题,因为长期目标并不明确,且相关因素得变化很难预测。事实上,不对最近问题作出 承诺,就是在谈判中 达到拒绝目得得一项重要技巧。

 Sometimes there is no way but to g ive a f lat r ef usal, but negotiators should h edge e against( ( 避免损失得措施)

 )

 the possible bad con sequ ences and prepare well in advance、 For example, the OWNER makes use of his advantageous position to make unreasonable demands or hold d ow n the bid price、

 有时,如果真得没有办法,只能 断然拒绝对。但就是谈判者应该未雨绸缪以防范可能得 不良后果。并提前做好准备。例如,业主利用自己得优势地位,提出不合理得要求或者 压低投标价格. Uni t 14 Tec hnic al Discussion(1)

 Sect ion A

 mon C aus es

 of C onst ru ction Di sp ut es 施工争议( 纠纷)得共因 (P 91- 93 )

 Cons truction is a unique p rocess which can give rise to some

 unusual and d

 uniq ue

 dispute s、 However, research in Australia, Canada, Kuwait, the United Kingdom and the United States suggests that a numbe r

 o f mon them es occur quite frequently、 工程建设就是一个 独特过程,可能引发一些 不寻常与独特得纠纷。然而,澳大利亚、加拿大、科威特、英国与美国等国得 研究表明,若干 共同主题相当频繁地发生。

 Acc eler ati on

 加快(工程速度) It is not unmon for mercial l

 p proper ty owners to insist upon acc eler atio n of a

 cons tructi on project、 The co nstru ctio n cos ts associated with acceleration a r e

  li kely t o be l ess t h an

 the

 merc ial risk the developer may face if key dates are missed、 对 开发商( 商业地产业主)来说, 坚持(施工方)

 加快工程 进度就是司空见惯得(或很常见得)事。因加快工程进度而产生得 施工成本, 可能少于 一旦工期延误(指开发商错过关键日期),开发商可能面临得 商业风险(指导致得商业赔偿)。

 The circumstances surr ound ing accelera tion are often not pr oper ly analysed at the time the decision is made, and that in evitably leads to disputes once the contractor has carried out acce lerative

 mea sures and incurred add ition al cost s o n l y t o f i n d

 that the developer refuses to pay、 承包商在作出决定时,往往 没有 正确 分析 围绕 加快工程进度 得情况.一旦实施了 工程加速措施,并 产生了 额外成本, 到 头来却 发现 开发商拒绝支付这笔费用,于就是就 不可避免地导致了纠纷(或争议)发生。

 Co— ordination n 协调工作(不到位)

 In plex project s involving many specialist trades, particularly mech an ical and

 e electrica l installa tion s, co o- -ordinatio n is key, yet conflict of ten a r i s es because work is not

 properly co—o rdinat ed、 This inevitably leads to conflict durin g

 insta llatio on n which is often costly and time—consuming to resolve, with each party bla ming g the other for the problems that have arisen、 在涉及多个专业行业得 复杂工程项目中,尤其就是 机电安装, 协调工作就是关键。然而由于工作没有 妥善处理 好, 冲突 时有发生 。

 这必然导致 在安装过程中发生冲突,一方 责备另一方引起得问题,解决这种冲突往往既消耗金钱又耗费时间。

 Inef fective

 mana geme nt c ontro l may result in

 a re activ e defense(被动防御;反应性防御)

 to problems that arise, rather than a

 proact ive appro ach(做事具有前瞻性;积极主动得方式) to resolv in g the problems once they bee apparent、

 无效得管理控制(管控)可能会导致产生得问题 被动防御,而不就是在问题一旦变得明显时,就 采取积极主动得方式去 解决(问题). C ulture 文化(冲突)

 The personnel required to visualiz e, initia te , pla n,

 des ign ,

 supply mat er ials and plan, t, construct, ,

 adm ini ster, manage,

 super vise, , mi ssio n and

 c orrec t d efe cts s thr ou...

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